THEO BOONE THE KID LAWYER
22 wrz.

Theodore Boone tłumaczy, co to dowód poszlakowy

Witajcie!

 

Dzisiejszą mini-lekcję języka angielskiego w prawie zainspirował prawnik i autor najpopularniejszych thrillerów prawniczych – John Grisham, a konkretniej jego seria książek dla dzieci i jej uroczy bohater, 13-letni Theodore.

Theo, bo tak zwraca się do niego rodzina i przyjaciele, to zapalony fan wszystkiego, czego dotyczy prawo, do tego stopnia, że często ucieka ze szkoły, aby móc spędzić cały dzień przysłuchując się rozprawom w sądzie. Rodzice Theo to prawnicy i on sam marzy o tym, aby kiedyś zostać adwokatem lub sędzią. Swoje umiejętności ćwiczy na co dzień oferując mieszkańcom miasteczka Strattenburg darmowe porady prawne oraz reprezentując właścicieli zwierząt w sporach dotyczących ich pupili.

Gorąco zachęcam do odwiedzenia strony poświęconej serii o Theo:

http://www.theodoreboone.com/ i do czytania książek w oryginale, bo język, w którym są napisane jest bardzo przystępny. Jak dotąd seria zawiera cztery tytuły:

Theodore Boone: Kid Lawyer

Theodore Boone: The Abduction

Theodore Boone: The Accused

Theodore Boone: The Activist

A teraz przejdźmy do dowodu poszlakowego.

For those of you who watch a lot of television, don’t expect fireworks. A real trial is very different, and not nearly as exciting. There are no surprise witnesses, no dramatic confessions, no fistfights between the lawyers. And, in this trial, there are no eyewitnesses to the murder. This means that all of the evidence from the State will be circumstantial. You’ll hear this word a lot, especially from Mr. Clifford Nance, the defense lawyer. He’ll make a big deal out of the fact that the State has no direct proof, that everything is circumstantial.”

“I’m not sure what it means,” someone said. “It means that the evidence is indirect, not direct. For example, did you ride your bike to school?”

“Yes.”

“And did you chain it to the rack by the flagpole?

“Yes.”

“So, when you leave school this afternoon, and you go to the rack, and your bike is gone and the chain has been cut, then you have indirect evidence that someone stole your bike. No one saw the thief, so there’s no direct evidence. And let’s say that tomorrow the police find your bike in a pawnshop on Raleigh Street, a place known to deal in stolen bikes, the owner gives the police a name, they investigate and find some dude with a history of stealing bikes. You can then make a strong case, through indirect evidence, that this guy is your thief. No direct evidence, but circumstantial.”

a confession – przyznanie się do winy (when you admit that you have done something wrong or illegal)

a fistfight – walka na pięści (a fight between people using their hands but no) weapons

to make a big deal out of– wyolbrzymiać (to make something seem more important/serious than it is)

a (bicycle/bike) rack –  stojak na rowery (a place where you park and chain bicycles)

a flagpole – maszt flagowy (a long pole which a flag is fastened to)

a pawnshop – lombard (a business that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral.

a secured loan – pożyczka pod zastaw                                   

collateral – zabezpieczenie

to deal in – handlować (to buy and sell)

to make a (strong) case that – przedstawić mocne argumenty na to, że (to explain that something is true)

CIRCUMSTANTIAL EVIDENCE

dowód poszlakowy

  • also called indirect evidence
  • evidence in a trial which is not directly from an eyewitness
  • evidence that relies on an inference
  • such inference indirectly establishes the existence/nonexistence of a fact

an inference – konkluzja (guessing that something is true)

examples of circumstantial evidence:

  • the accused’s resistance to arrest
  • the presence of a motive or opportunity to commit the crime
  • the accused’s presence at the time and place of the crime
  • any denials, evasions or contradictions on the part of the accused
  • forensic evidence (it requires a jury to make a connection between the circumstance (the fingerprints) and the fact (someone being guilty or not guilty of a crime).

A collection of circumstantial evidence is called corroborating evidence.

a denial – zaprzeczenie (a statement that something is not true)

an evasion – uchylanie się (the avoiding of an accusation, question, etc.)

a contradiction – sprzeczność (when facts presented are in conflict, inconsistent, etc.)

forensic evidence – dowód na podstawie zeznania biegłego medycyny sądowej (evidence obtained by the use of science, for example DNA evidence)

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